The Astrology Lab

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The Astrological South Node

Let’s talk about the South Node. In synastry or chart comparison, anything the south node touches turns to that feeling of instant comfort with someone, attraction, familiarity. That South Node “it just flows! It’s like I’ve known you my whole life” kind of magic. That’s how it feels at first, anyway. It’s not until you’ve been in south node relationships for some time when you realize the toll it’s taken on you. In the natal chart, the south node represents where you’ve been, what you’ve mastered, what you’ve overdone even to the point where past patterns formed are now more detrimental than helpful to your life and mental health. Often with the South Node, we will see one’s self-destructive psychological mechanisms they rely on stemming from fear, though the cause of that fear varies based on house, sign and aspects. Where we get in our own way of happiness or success. The South Node will always be an important part of ourselves, regardless of how much progress we make.

The nodal axis itself, to me at least, represents our unique “settings” controlling our experience of life. Diving more into metaphysics here, but say we sign up for this life. We choose to come here to learn certain things, to grow in certain ways. To have certain experiences. The North/South Node axis SHAPES our personal growth experience here, it tells us where we may have karma (South Node), and where we can look for growth, balance, healing, and wellness (North Node). The North/South Node axis tells us what actions we can take that will bring us fulfillment, wellness, and success (North Node), and also what actions that will hold us back, keep us in the past (South Node). I hope that helps clarify the difference. It is ALWAYS important to consider the North and South Node rulers and any aspects (namely conjunction/opposition and squares) they make to other planets, midpoints and angles as well. To provide a quick example of rulership, if your South Node is in Cancer, it’s ruler would be the Moon. Say the moon in this chart is in Aries, heavily conflicted with multiple square aspects. It’s probably safe to say that that person is working out some Moon (emotion)-related South node karma manifesting as impulsive over-reactions, insensitivity, things like that. Side note: If you don’t identify with your North and South node from personal study, I might suggest looking into Sidereal astrology as a comparison to see if those rulers/signs make more sense to you than tropical. I’m currently on the fence about which system to use, so I’ve been using both for research and comparing. But we won’t get into that right now! 🙂

So what about synastry? The South Node DRAINS anything it touches in time. It’s all sunshine and flowers at first, but you’ll more likely than not develop some unhealthy dynamics depending on each person’s communication and maturity. The effect may be more immediate or take longer to manifest, it could be subtle or distinct. I’ve had instances where the first date with someone’s South Node tightly conjunct my Mars (energy, life force) instantly drained the energy out of me where I was exhausted afterwards! I’ve also experienced the instant ease of a moon-south node contact or sun-south node that overtime develops into criticism and self-projection of personal preferences and dislikes. Usually the South Node individual projects their life lessons and node-tailored personality expression preferences onto the Sun or Moon person and unconsciously restricts that person’s zazzle/core essence (sun) or emotional expression (moon). The sun or moon may not even realize this is happening at the time. They may unconsciously adapt their expression to meet the South Node person’s desires, but it’s never enough. Only after walking away from a south node relationship does the planet person realize how much it dimmed their light. It’s the south node person’s influence. Because in South Node’s world, certain characteristics are subjectively good and bad based on their karmic path. But the South Node person’s path is not the same as the planet person’s path, and having that close relationship blurs those lines.

If that was confusing, here’s an example. We have Jack, a Sagittarius North Node and Jill, a Capricorn North Node. Say Jill’s Sun and Jupiter are conjunct Jack’s South Node in Gemini and Jack’s Ascendant is conjunct Jill’s South Node in Cancer. Jack unconsciously projects his strong preference for Sagittarian qualities (because his North Node is in Sagittarius) and dislike for Gemini-characteristics (because his South Node is in Gemini) onto Jill. Jill being heavy in Gemini senses how Jack reacts to her Gemini expression and holds back. On the other hand, Jill unconsciously projects her strong preference for Capricorn qualities and her dislike of Cancer-characteristics onto Jack. But since Jack’s Ascendant is in Cancer, he finds that she is critical when he expresses those Cancer traits and unconsciously restricts himself to keep Jill around.

Venus-South Node isn’t so bad, perhaps because the nature of Venus is to please and it’s more amiable to South Node’s desires. It’s those tight Sun, Moon, or Ascendant conjunct South Node contacts you’ve got to watch out for in synastry because they often manifest with unhealthy dynamics. The South Node finds fault with the planet and feels held back, and the planet person feels their expression is hindered and the South Node is unjustly critical towards them. If you’re not able to objectively appreciate the other person and what makes them unique outside the context of your own nodal axis, sometimes the best option is to move on.

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The Astrological 7th House: Common Misconceptions

Hi everyone,

This post is a little random, but I figure I might as well write a bit since it’s been a minute. So. Have you ever noticed how in astrology all the 12 houses are person-centric except for the 7th house? By that I mean that most astrologers attribute the qualities of the descendant (7th house cusp) or any planets on that cusp or in the 7th house as characteristics of others outside of ourselves. In chart comparison articles, the 7th house is said to describe our ideal partner, or an undeveloped area of our personalities that we unconsciously draw to ourselves through partners/people external to ourselves.

The 7th through 12th houses are the ones usually dealing with the world outside of ourselves. But why is it that houses 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 have to do with our personal interaction with the outside world/people in it while the 7th house is all about who we attract to ourselves? To elaborate, let’s explore the 10th house starting out. Also an angle, the 10th house represents our highest aspirations, our lifetime goals, our public image, our footprint that we leave behind, our reputation. What we’re known for. The 11th house represents how we behave with friends or online even, our dedication to humanitarian causes, our participation in groups. The 8th house represents our private self, similar to the 4th house but a little darker it seems. The 8th house is all about intimacy and transformation. All of these other houses have to do with our relationship to that area of our lives, how our personality emerges, shifts, takes on a little different coloration in the various external areas of our lives. But why then does that rationale not apply to the 7th house of relationships?

I’ve been told by astrologers and online articles that my Pisces Descendant means that I attract people who need help, or those who are extremely spiritual and connected to the “divine”, or those with escapist tendencies. It has nothing to do with me outside of the fact that it represents who I’m attracting to myself. I’m going to firmly disagree with this interpretation though, through both experience and logic. It is not logical to say the 7th house represents something outside of ourselves while the remaining 11 houses represent our personal interaction with the world. I’d like to suggest that the 7th house represents, as the first of the external houses, how our personality emerges in that external realm of relationships with others. The 7th house is still us. It’s not a hidden, unconscious aspect of ourselves like 12th house planets may be. The 7th house is how we interact with others. Who we become when we interact with others. If the first house is our personal identity and lens through which we view the world, the 7th house represents how that personality shifts when others are in the picture interacting with us. If a person has Pluto on the descendant, many astrologers would jump the gun and say “That person attracts pushy, manipulative, strong personalities into their lives.” However, my interpretation is the opposite. If a person has Pluto on the descendant, I say that that person can come across to others as pushy and manipulative in relationships, even if unaware of this themselves. If a person has Jupiter on the descendant, most astrologers would say that they attract partners or people who are expansive jovial personalities, partners who are philosophers or religious, or who travel a lot, or perhaps the person met their partner in another country. Common interpretations I’ve read. However, I would argue that, on the contrary, a person with Jupiter on the descendant personally expresses Jupiterian qualities of expansiveness, excess, philosophical inquiry, and maybe overdoing it a little with romantic partners. Buying them too many gifts, blowing up their phone non-stop with excitable texts and just coming on too strong, but not out of manipulation. Just wearing their heart on their sleeve. Yes, I’ve met and dated the two people I described above. One with Jupiter on the descendant and another with Pluto on the descendant. Pluto on the descendant was one of the most manipulative people I know.

Ironically, I’ve also met two individuals in the last 10 years with Pluto on the Ascendant as well. And in case you’re questioning orbs, these are all within 1 degree of conjunction to the angle. Most astrological interpretations suggest that the Pluto-Ascendant personality has darker, manipulative hues with a tendency towards all-or-nothing attitudes and obsession. That has not been my experience. In fact, that description aligns with my experience interacting with Pluto-Descendant individuals. Pluto-Ascendant, in my experience, manifests as strong personalities that you either love or hate, find appealing or repulsive. Radiating certain characteristics intensely, while (for example) dancing in a theater production or always displaying a strong sense of humor that you either love or hate. There’s a degree of magnetism or intensity involved, but that’s with or without interaction with other people. I hope that makes sense.

So please do your own research and draw your own conclusions about the 7th house! I’m not sure where some of these misconstrued interpretations come from, but it’s important to take them with a grain of salt and do your own research. As always, please share comments if you have anything to add, any personal experiences, or even if you disagree! The path to truth often begins with dialogue between people harboring differing opinions.

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Draconic chart: Should we be looking at midpoints?

The draconic chart is still heavily debated among astrologers, but I’ve found it to be incredibly useful when tropical (or sidereal, if you choose) synastry is on the weaker side. If a sun-moon or moon-moon conjunction between charts draconically carries weight (and I believe it does), then does it follow that the draconic sun-moon midpoint is a sensitive relationship point in the chart as well? For the longest time I dismissed the idea and only recognized the tropical sun/moon midpoint as significant.

For those of you new to midpoints or new to astrology, one calculates the sun/moon midpoint by finding the degree exactly in the middle of your sun and moon. The S/M midpoint actually forms an axis.  To use my chart as an example: My sun is at 22.51 Cancer and my moon is at 24.53 Aries, so my sun/moon midpoint is 8.52 Gemini AND 8.52 Sagittarius. When first learning astrology I did not consider midpoints significant…until life happened and I encountered certain individuals with their luminaries on my own sun/moon midpoint. In retrospect, my two larger than life “in loves”/infatuations (Love is a loaded word) both had either sun or moon conjunct my sun/moon midpoint. And my attraction to those people stands out beyond anyone else, correlating with the synastry. So naturally, that forced me to consider the weight of the sun/moon midpoint in relationships. At this point I consider it one of a select few ‘in love’ factors that could easily lead to marriage if synastry aspects are mutual and commitment-favorable.

It wasn’t until recently that I discovered how powerful the draconic sun/moon midpoint can be as well. I highly encourage EVERYONE to look into this in chart comparison, because most of the world may not be aware of this hidden gem explaining attraction. In my research there have been a handful of situations where my draconic sun or moon activated someone else’s draco sun/moon midpoint, and for the midpoint person the attraction was as strong as it would be in tropical synastry–and even so when there were few other aspects that could explain it. I also know of a couple who have a double-whammy draconic sun conjunct each other’s sun/moon midpoint within half of a degree that far outweighs the rest of their chart inter-aspects. While a handful of case studies is not a lot, it’s something to look into. Of course this also leads to the question: Should we be considering other draconic midpoints as well, like venus-mars, moon-mars, ascendant-midheaven? Definitely something to consider. If you’re reading this and would like to share your own experience, please send me a message!

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Is astrology the code for the matrix?

Why good evening all! I’ve been studying astrology for some time now, and while it’s proven itself through patterns–mostly through chart comparison and predictive techniques for me–one question always remains unanswered. Why does it work?  One reason astrology is so debated is because there’s no concrete deductive explanation. Astrologers can swear by the repeating patterns, but if everyone else isn’t able to make sense out of the WHY, integrate it into their worldview without issue…often, they’ll dismiss the WHAT.

Why does so much importance fall on the sun and moon, specifically the nodal axis, lunations and eclipses, and the debated draconic chart? Why oh why is the sun and moon the same size from our earthly perspective? For those of you who don’t know the astronomical explanation of lunar nodes, they are calculated by finding the intersection of the ecliptic (sun’s apparent path around earth) with the moon’s path around the earth. The ecliptic and moon’s path intersect at two points, exactly 180 degrees apart. In astrology the lunar nodes (north and south node) represent one’s karmic purpose on this planet. What are you here to learn? In what ways do you need to grow? What destructive traits/tendencies do you have that are better left behind you? Planetary transits and lunations to the natal north/south node are exceptionally revealing and consistent. Likewise, transiting north/south node passing over natal planets and angles have a similar effect. The nodes in synastry (chart comparison) have a strong influence on friendships, family and attraction. And it all boils down to the sun and moon. Sun – Moon conjunctions in synastry as well as having sun or moon conjunct the partner’s sun/moon midpoint is another huge indicator for attraction and friendship when comparing charts. I’ve experienced both personally and can vouch for the sun/moon midpoint’s potency, but I want to encourage you to look into it for yourself.

And the draconic chart. While I’m still debating how effective certain astrological techniques are within the draconic, the chart itself is surprisingly accurate when comparing charts of family members, partners, lifetime friends. “Soulmates,” if you will. Draconic sun-moon and moon-moon conjunctions are common when the connection is so strong. Don’t believe me? Do your own research. My three closest female friends and mother all have their draconic moon conjunct, or in one case opposite, mine. What are the odds of that? HOLD UP, you say. What’s the draconic chart? I got ahead of myself. The draconic chart is calculated by placing one’s north node at 0 Aries. It’s better explained through example. Say your natal north node is at 0 Aquarius, 60 degrees from the 0 Aries point. To calculate the draconic chart, I’m going to move your entire chart forward by 60 degrees so the geometric aspects between planets stay the same. But, your north node is now at 0 Aries. EVERYONE’s north node is 0 Aries in the draconic chart. Since my mother’s moon is exactly conjunct mine at 17 Gemini in the draconic chart, that means that our natal moons are the exact same distance from our natal north nodes (Draconic north node 0 Aries –> drac. moon 17 Gemini =77 degrees apart). Hope that makes sense. So what’s the point of the draconic chart? It seems to show connections that run deep, deeper than one lifetime if you believe in that kind of thing. But it’s all based on the relationship of every planet and point in the natal chart….to the north node. And the north node is all about the sun and the moon. Common theme?

We’ve all heard stories of crazy people doing crazy things around a full moon. That might be me tomorrow, or you! Lunations and eclipses falling on personal planets and angles usually indicate that there’s some stuff going down in your life, be it a solar eclipse on your ascendant and you become a lifetime vegetarian or a full moon on your south node when a close friend reveals he has feelings for you. Two small examples. I could go on and on. Lunations and eclipses have been rendered significant by the astro-community for a long time. And there it is, sun and moon again.

What exactly is the sun and moon in the natal chart? I’ve read countless descriptions of the sun vs. the moon in astrology, but my take on it may be different in some ways (and alike in others). The moon, to me, is who we are when no one is looking, our emotional instincts, reactions, processing. My moon is in Aries in the private 8th house, so it takes a while for people to see the Aries. The tendencies emerge over time, especially in intimate relationships (ruled by the 8th house). The sun seems more in tune with our highest good, expression of the divinity within us perhaps? The sun is by nature more objective than the moon, sees the larger picture. The sun gives our solar system life, so in our chart perhaps it represents the spark of divinity (soul) that breaths life into our bodies. But can you really see the soul in an astrology chart? If past lives exist, then wouldn’t it be true that we’ve all had multiple charts at multiple times, each representing the experience we’re signing up for? So what is the sun then? All questions, no answers. I know…

I view astrology as a kind of code to our reality. Dive into this metaphor with me. Say our reality is a video game with multiple players, and the video game is something we choose to play to develop certain skills/attributes and have certain experiences. But we can fine tune what we want to develop through the kinds of people and situations we attract to ourselves during our life. So, we select an astrological chart that represents our lifetime/game pesonality and the experience we want to have. So I’m Amy, and I was born on XX/XX/XXXX. My natal chart is like the coding to my player in the game. When astrological transits hit my natal chart in certain ways (i.e. transiting planets/nodes or lunations), it activates my ‘code’ to have certain experiences. Certain people are in my life that activate my code in certain ways to bring out aspects of my player personality so as to create learning experiences that I want to learn. And of course, I have some freedom in it all. I can challenge and dismiss all lessons and hide from it. Perhaps, I can rise above it like Neo in the Matrix. I had to, guys. Come on. You didn’t think this article was going to end without a Matrix reference did you? Think about the metaphor though. It seems to make astrology a lot easier to explain. What if our earth-sun-moon system is sort of like a video game, or a three dimensional matrix where we come to learn certain things? We can’t check all the boxes for skills, growth, lessons, etc. at once so we narrow it down through the intricacy of our chosen natal chart. When people/planets/nodes/progressions/lunations hit our natal positions, it triggers certain things to happen and they tend to follow a theme. The north node represents a major growth goal. Astrology is mostly geometry after all, at least when it comes to chart comparison and predictive techniques.

Energy should also be considered though. Sacred geometry can be used to organize and focus energy.  If it works down here on earth with crystals, then it would follow that energy could also be ‘organized’ by planets and luminaries. What exactly does the spiritual community mean by energy though? In her Convoluted Universe series, Dolores Cannon writes, “I have heard much about everything being composed of energy and the shape and form is only determined by frequency and vibration. Energy never dies, it only changes form.” I have a hunch quantum mechanics is going to pave the road for a (dare I say) unification of science and some of these new age theories. Vibrating strings. Frequency. String theory anyone? Our natal chart represents an energetic time stamp that shapes our experience this lifetime on earth. That’s why astrologers look at first meeting charts and other event charts too. But does that mean that every time something is born, be it an animal, a plant, a manufactured car, a work of art or an idea….that it’s energetically stamped with an astrological chart? One thing I struggle with, regarding my spirituality, is knowing we live in a magical world where synchronicities happen day after day, and yet….how do you explain the bacteria? The more I learn about the tiny scientific details, the more issues I find trying to merge my understanding of the physical world, at least biologically, and what I know to be true of the spiritual one. This is one conundrum I have no answers for. Maybe Dolores does, but I haven’t finished her books. Is it possible that our physical world is just that, a physical world. And human beings belong to that world as breathing, biological beings? But there’s more going on here and we all know it deep within ourselves. I don’t have the answers, but I’m always trying to learn more.  That’s all I’ve got for now. Feel free to leave comments/insights. I’d love to hear your thoughts!

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What is the Anti-Vertex in Astrology?

The Vertex was only discovered in the mid 1970s by Edward Johndro, and research seems to be lacking ever since, especially on the point opposite the Vertex, deemed the Anti-Vertex. Technically speaking, the Vertex is the point found at the intersection of the Prime Vertical and the Ecliptic. The west point is called the Vertex, while the east point is called the Anti-Vertex. One can find a handful of articles on the Vertex after Google searching, but the Anti-Vertex has been minimized to a “spiritual ascendant”, and that’s as far as the explanation goes. Not fun for learning astrologers trying to do their own online research. The Vertex, on the other hand, is associated with fate, destiny, and other words I hate using because they represent a laughable perspective on the nature of reality according to Western science. I’ll attempt to expand on the Vertex a bit. The Vertex supposedly gives you access to other realities if you believe in that kind of thing. Witnessing the hand of god (“fate”). But desiring the eye of god and ultimate knowledge is more in the Anti-Vertex realm to my knowledge so far. So perhaps the Vertex is the effect and the Anti-Vertex is the cause, and if the Vertex shows you the unsolved mysteries in life, then the Anti-Vertex must try to find answers and explanations for them.

With our limited knowledge on the Anti-Vertex and even the Vertex, the only option here is to do your own research and pull from other’s experiences and your own. I am fortunate to have a prominent Vertex/Anti-Vertex in my natal chart, conjunct the North Node less than a degree with Mercury tightly aspecting the opposite end (South Node, Anti-Vertex). It’s always been challenging trying to dissect these individual energetic influences and understand them. Maybe exploring my own experience and the experiences of others who’s charts have prominent Vertex axes can increase our understanding here. If YOU have any wisdom to share, please feel free to comment!

My North Node is in Aquarius, 5th house, conjunct the Vertex. At the opposite end you’ll find Mercury in Leo, 11th house, conjunct the Anti-Vertex and  South Node all within 1 ½ degrees. Everything started for me with my North Node return when I was 18, in college. Transiting North Node was then also passing over my Vertex, and transiting South Node my Mercury and Anti-Vertex. This was one of the most confusing, frustrating, awe-inspiring, almost magical times of my life. It felt like I could FEEL the energies around me, influencing me, pushing and pulling, holding my tongue. And yes, South Node passing over a natal South Node-mercury conjunction can certainly inhibit your conversation skills, especially with someone you’re already nervous around. Gotta love those college infatuations. I’ve learned through transits, synastry, and progressions that my Leo South Node is related to music, saxophone, piano, band, you name it. Anyone I meet with Moon or Sun conjunct my South Node has a huge attraction or interest in me for those reasons. And, when I was in 10th-12th grade, that’s when my progressed Sun passed over my South Node. All my talents were flowing out, first chair saxophone, college piano auditions, field commander of the marching band or section leader. Positive karma and past life gifts, right? That’s definitely my South Node area. It’s also the part of me that thinks she needs the approval of others to feel good about herself, too ego-focused, overly concerned about maintaining self-image. Welcome to Leo. All this changed during my first North Node return. The incoming Aquarian energies transformed my South Node entirely, where I uncovered other gifts, other North node-inspired  ways to apply my detail-oriented, music-trained Mercury.  I realized very quickly that I have limited control over the events happening around me, even inside me to an extent, and that there are invisible forces all around us influencing our lives whether we’re aware or not. Though this raises the question: How much is within our power to control and how much isn’t? Because we all experience thought, decision-making, we have free will internally, so how is it that something external can alter our internal experience so drastically, the way we perceive,  behave and move throughout the world, and the people and events in our lives? It’s pretty obvious that I’ve processed the hell out of everything and have tried my best to make sense of it. This is where you’re seeing my reaction to these experiences, and therefore where you’re seeing the Mercury/South Node/Anti-Vertex on the opposite end of the axis. Because that’s what Mercury does. South Node implies that I’m good at this, but I overdo it a bit; I might need to make sure I use Mercury  in a healthy way, to benefit others and not spiral out. So then, that leaves the Anti-Vertex: maybe knowledge, understanding the way things work? This is a definition in progress, that’s for sure.

And to confuse you (and myself) even more: If the Vertex represents the uncontrollable, then what if the Anti-Vertex represents the opposite. You’ll notice that Vertex and Anti-Vertex people (and people without either point accented) all share drastically different  worldviews when you dig far enough in. The heavy Vertex people may seem whimsical or miserable, external locus of control for better or worse. And you’ll have those with a great streak of luck and those who have received the short end of the stick repeatedly without knowing why. This group tends to be very open-minded, but sometimes they cling onto a religion to fill in the blanks that can never be answered. The heavy Anti-Vertex people are the ones that speculate, INTJs til they die, probably agnostic, possibly atheist, maybe something else. But they have questioned and will continue to do so. They are curious but harsh skeptics, extremely intellectual if Mercury is involved, even if it isn’t. You’ll usually find an internal locus of control with these guys if only the Anti-Vertex weighs on their personality without the Vertex to counteract it. So, it could be as simple as internal vs. external locus of control, but usually there’s a good reason behind that worldview. Witnessing the hand of “god” (AKA energies, unseen forces, whatever you want to call it) leads naturally to an acceptance and appreciation of the unknown and thus an external locus of control. WITHOUT this influence, the Anti-Vertex alone will naturally believe he is god, or as capable as god to uncover the truths about reality, developing the eye of god through understanding the universe that evolved on its own.  Independent thought, strength in willpower. These guys are learning to be their own crutch. If they cling to a religion, it may be out of a “just incase there is a hell” theory, or going through the motions because of familial/cultural expectation. More likely though, they’ll choose atheism or a more person-focused philosophy like Buddhism.

Astrology has helped me realize that everyone’s world is tailored to their own spiritual needs. Whatever we’re here to learn, these unseen forces will provide experiences that shape your personal experience here. Sounds like a load of bull, right? I know. Maybe I am here to develop an external locus of control, so my view of the world includes astrology, other forms of divination, experiencing the magic of these unseen forces that I claim to have felt despite others thinking I’m some woowoo, wannabe guru who has schizophrenia or a drug addiction. Or an overly impressionable mind, a tendency to latch on to an idea despite the evidence against. And then, maybe there are others who are here to develop their own willpower, confidence in their opinions and beliefs. Those are the ones that will never find solace in an external locus because they’re here to leave that behind. So their truth is different from mine. Does astrology even exist, or is just a tool to help me and others learn? How is it possible to live in such a personalized universe? I’ve toyed around with the idea that we really do live in some sort of holographic matrix, where mathematical equations and geometry (astrology in a nutshell) manifest themselves as reality, one way to read the code. Or if astrology only rings true in my world, backed by patterns and observations that only exist in my world, then that implies such a complicated, multifaceted reality way beyond my comprehension or anyone else’s. What’s really going on here?

From looking at other charts, here are a few patterns I’ve found: Natal Vertex—Pluto has a pattern of traumatic experience. Anti-Vertex–Mercury conjunctions or Anti-Vertex north node conjunctions like to develop their own theories about the nature of reality. North node-Vertex or Descendant-Vertex usually have a few strange stories to tell that they can’t explain. Mercury-Vertex is a little like Mercury-Anti-Vertex, but with those strange unexplainable stories that opened them up to alternative perspectives the latter would have ruled out in the first round. These are the aspects I’ve encountered the most so far.